Turbocharger Structural Principle

2019-06-13 09:35:54

  Turbocharger is actually an air compressor, which increases air intake through compressed air. It uses the inertial impulse of exhaust gas from the engine to drive the turbine in the turbine chamber. The turbine also drives the coaxial impeller. The impeller presses the air from the air filter pipe to make it supercharged into the cylinder. When the engine speed increases, the exhaust gas exhaust speed and the turbine speed also increase synchronously, the impeller compresses more air into the cylinder, and the increase of air pressure and density can burn more fuel. The output power of the engine can be increased by increasing the amount of fuel and adjusting the engine speed accordingly.


Structural Principle

First of all, we will talk about the general structure and principle of turbocharger. Exhaust gas turbocharger is mainly composed of pump wheel and turbine, of course, there are some other control elements. Pump wheels and turbines are connected by a shaft, that is, the rotor. The exhaust gas from the engine drives the pump wheels. Pump wheels drive the turbines to rotate. After the turbine rotates, the intake system is pressurized. The turbocharger is installed on the exhaust side of the engine, so the working temperature of the turbocharger is very high, and the rotating speed of the turbocharger rotor is very high, which can reach more than 100,000 revolutions per minute. Such high rotating speed and temperature make the common mechanical needle or ball bearing unable to work for the rotor. Therefore, the turbocharger generally adopts full floating bearing, lubricated by oil, and so on. Coolant is used to cool the supercharger. Previously, turbochargers were mostly used in diesel engines, because the combustion mode of gasoline and diesel is different, so the engine uses turbochargers in different forms.


Gasoline engine is different from diesel engine. It enters the cylinder not by air, but by the mixture of gasoline and air. It is easy to deflagrate if the pressure is too high. Therefore, the installation of turbocharger must avoid deflagration, which involves two related issues, one is high temperature control, the other is ignition time control.


After forced supercharging, the temperature and pressure of gasoline engine during compression and combustion will increase, and the deflagration tendency will increase. In addition, the exhaust temperature of gasoline engine is higher than that of diesel engine, and it is inappropriate to increase the overlap angle of valve (the opening time of intake and exhaust valves at the same time) to enhance the cooling of exhaust, and reduce the compression ratio will cause insufficient combustion. Moreover, the speed of the gasoline engine is higher than that of the diesel engine, and the air flow rate varies greatly, which easily causes the reaction lag of the turbocharger. In view of a series of problems arising from the use of turbochargers in gasoline engines, engineers have made specific improvements one by one so that gasoline engines can also use exhaust turbochargers.


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