Turbocharger is actually an air compressor, which increases air intake through compressed air. The turbocharger actuator manufacturer considers that it uses the inertial impulse of exhaust gas from the engine to drive the turbine in the turbine chamber. The turbine also drives the coaxial impeller, which presses the air from the air filter pipeline to pressurize it into the cylinder. When the engine speed increases, the exhaust gas exhaust speed and the turbine speed also increase synchronously, the impeller compresses more air into the cylinder, and the increase of air pressure and density can burn more fuel. The output power of the engine can be increased by increasing the amount of fuel and adjusting the engine speed accordingly.
I. Installation Location
Turbochargers are usually installed on the exhaust side of engines.
II. Working Principle
1. The exhaust energy from engine combustion is used to impact the turbine to generate kinetic energy and drive the coaxial compressor to work with compressed air, thereby increasing the intake pressure.
2. The essence of turbocharging is to increase the inflatable density, which can be achieved by increasing the intake pressure and lowering the intake temperature.
3. At present, the speed of turbocharging is between 10-240,000 revolutions. When the engine speed increases, the exhaust gas exhaust speed and the turbine speed are also accelerated synchronously. Within the range of turbocharging pressure, the more fresh air is pressed into the cylinder, which effectively improves the fuel utilization rate and outputs higher power.
4. Turbocharger protection control
Intake protection: When the engine slows down sharply, in order to avoid the direct action of high-pressure air on the electronic throttle, the intake and relief valve opens.
Exhaust protection: The control unit controls the turbocharger's supercharging effect by controlling the opening and closing of the exhaust relief valve, and also protects the turbocharger from damage caused by excessive speed.
3. Fault Phenomenon and Judgment Method
Fault phenomena: difficulty in starting, difficulty in raising speed, insufficient power, high fuel consumption, idle shaking, etc.
Actuator detection: use multimeter to measure actuator resistance and working voltage, use oscilloscope to read actuator waveform, and use diagnostic instrument to conduct action testing.
Above is the role of turbocharger, working principle, fault phenomena and diagnostic methods. If you encounter turbocharger fault in maintenance, you can try the above measurement methods.
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