There are two main reasons for the failure of turbocharger: one is the damage caused by overheating of engine, the other is the damage caused by insufficient lubricating oil. What measures should we take to prevent and solve these problems according to different damage reasons?
I. Cause Analysis
Through the analysis of several on-site faults of the turbocharger, the main reasons for the damage of the turbocharger are as follows:
1. Damage caused by engine overheating
Because there is not enough information and experience in the process of engine maintenance, one time the fuel injection volume is adjusted too much by adjusting the fuel injection pump, and the other time the fuel injection timing is adjusted too late. As a result, the engine is overheated (the engine feels hot after working for a while), and the reason is not found in time, which leads to the damage of the supercharger. When the turbocharger was dismantled and inspected, it was found that the wheel axle of the turbocharger was discolored due to overheating, and there were carbon slag and bearing damage in the middle shell.
It is also found that when the turbine impeller is subjected to high temperature (over 650 C), heat is transferred along the axial compressor, and the lubricant cokes in the middle shell to form precipitate, which accelerates the wear of the bearing as the lubricant enters the friction parts. At the same time, at high temperature, the lubricating oil becomes thinner, which reduces the oil pressure and affects the lubrication, eventually leading to the failure of the supercharger. In addition, due to the poor condition of the engine, the engine often goes out suddenly in high-speed operation, and the driver often stops in high-speed operation, which is also one of the reasons for the premature damage of the supercharger.
2. Damage caused by insufficient lubricating oil
(1) When the original turbocharger is damaged, the oil pressure of the main oil passage is normal, but when the lubricating oil inlet pipe of the turbocharger is dismantled, almost no lubricating oil flows out. When the oil radiator is dismantled and inspected, it is found that the radiator is basically blocked by sludge. After thorough cleaning of the engine lubrication system, the oil lubrication is restored and the supercharger is running normally.
(2) Damage caused by malfunction of oil pump
In a fault diagnosis of turbocharger damage, the measured oil pressure of main oil pipeline is only 0.03 MPa, and the oil intake pipe of turbocharger is almost free of oil. The lubrication system was checked and no blockage was found. When the oil pump was disassembled and inspected, it was found that the fragments of the opening pin entered the oil pump, which caused the damage of gears and housing and the failure of the oil pump, and caused the damage of the turbocharger without oil lubrication. The damage of the oil pump also led to the overhaul of the engine. After disassembling and inspecting the damaged turbochargers, it was found that some of them contained sediment in the middle shell, which affected the lubrication of the turbochargers. The speed of the supercharger's axle is from tens of thousands to 20 million revolutions. All bearings must be supplied with lubricating oil for stabilization, lubrication and cooling. If the lubricant is insufficient or interrupted, at such a high speed, the direct friction between metal and metal will inevitably lead to parts damage one by one, until the supercharger fails.
1. Correctly install and use supercharger
(1) After starting the engine, the idle speed of the engine must be kept for a few minutes so that the lubricating oil pressure can be established and the supercharger can be fully lubricated to prevent dry friction.
(2) When new turbochargers are installed or oil is replaced, a certain amount of oil should be injected into the turbocharger; or the crankshaft should be turned several times so that the turbocharger can be lubricated after starting the engine and before the oil pressure has been established.
(3) Before the engine stops running, it must idle for several minutes to reduce the speed and temperature of the turbocharger step by step, so as to prevent the sudden interruption of lubrication of the turbocharger at high speed and high temperature, resulting in dry friction of parts, and carbonization of lubricating oil at high temperature.
(4) After engine maintenance, it is necessary to ensure smooth lubrication and sufficient pressure; when starting the engine, it is necessary to install a manometer to measure the oil pressure. For engines without oil pressure gauge display (warning lamp display), oil pressure should also be checked regularly in normal operation in order to prevent errors in oil pressure display on the engine.
2. Correct Maintenance and Adjustment of Turbocharger and Engine
(1) It is necessary to prevent the contamination of lubricating oil and to replace lubricating oil regularly so as not to affect the quantity and pressure of the supercharger and prevent oil pollution from entering the supercharger.
(2) Correctly adjust the operating parameters of the engine, because improper adjustment will make the engine work abnormally, overheat and smoke, so that the oil is polluted and carbonized. Effectively prevent any external debris from entering the turbocharger compressor through the intake port.
(3) The turbocharger generally does not need periodic maintenance. If it is found that the lubricating oil is too dirty, the oil filter plugs or there are impurities in the lubricating oil, it is necessary to maintain the turbocharger to remove the oil and impurities in the turbocharger.
3. Choose and Purchase Supercharger Correctly
(1) Prevent unqualified turbochargers from being put into use.
(2) The type and part number of supercharger should be matched with the engine. If not matched, the performance of the engine and the life of the supercharger will be affected.
In addition, we should also note that the damage of supercharger is not only related to the use and maintenance of engine, but also to the maintenance of maintenance personnel. Therefore, we should strengthen staff's knowledge of the use and maintenance of equipment, and strengthen equipment management and driver's sense of responsibility, so as to facilitate our timely detection and troubleshooting.
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