Turbo chargeris an air compressor driven by two coaxial impellers using exhaust gasgenerated by internal combustion engine operation. Similar to the function ofthe mechanical supercharger, both of them can increase the air flow into theinternal combustion engine or boiler, thereby improving the combustionefficiency. Usually used in automobile engines, turbo charger can improve theoutput power of internal combustion engines or fuel economy at the same outputpower by utilizing the heat and flow rate of exhaust gas.
Generally, a turbine consists of a set of fins and a shaft, and thefins are placed on the shaft. The shaft is supported by some kind of bearing.The radiator obtains energy from the fluid and rotates the shaft. This shaftdrives the compressor in turn. Common turbines include the following two types:
Bucket wheel is a typical example of turbine. Through the nozzle,the velocity of the fluid is increased while the pressure remains unchanged, sothat the momentum of the fluid particles changes, thus exerting force on thefins. This turbine is the application of Newton's second law.
Reactive power turbine is a practical application of Newton's thirdlaw. Unlike pulsed turbines, in reactive turbines, fluid flows out of the turbineand exerts a reaction force on the turbine.
Compressor reduces intake volume by increasing intake pressure.Compressor is the same as pump. Pumps work with liquids and compressors workwith gases. All compressors can be roughly divided into two types: positivedisplacement type and dynamic type.
With the increase of exhaust volume, the turbine speed increases,and the compressed air volume increases, thus increasing the system pressure.Now, if the intake pressure increases, the speed of the exhaust turbine will befurther increased. Therefore, through this process, the speed of turbochargerincreases continuously. The exhaust valve is a mechanical system that limitsthe speed of the turbocharger by conveying a certain amount of exhaust gas tothe turbine.
WorkingPrinciple of Turbo Charger
The exhaust gas enters the turbine shell through the exhaustmanifold to drive the turbine to rotate. Because the turbine and the impellerare coaxial, the impeller in the other side of the shell also rotates with theturbine. The impeller compresses air and sends high density compressed air intothe combustion chamber to participate in combustion.
The whole process does not take power fromthe engine, using the exhaust gas generated by the engine work to promote,almost no additional load is generated by the engine.
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